Procedure No. 3225P
School-Based Threat Assessment
For purposes of District- or school-based threat assessments of students, the following definitions will apply:
1. School-based threat assessment: the formal process, established by the District, of evaluating the threatening, or potentially threatening, behavior of a student and the circumstances surrounding the threat to uncover any facts or evidence that the student or another actor is likely to carry out the threat.
- School-based threat management: the development and implementation of a plan to manage or reduce the threatening, or potentially threatening, behavior of a student in a way that increases the physical and psychological safety of students, staff, and visitors, while providing for the education of all students.
- Threat: an expression of an intent to cause physical harm to self and/or others. The threat may be expressed/communicated behaviorally, orally, visually, in writing, electronically, or through any other means. Such expression is considered a threat regardless of whether it is observed by or communicated directly to the target of the threat or observed by or communicated to a third party, and regardless of whether the target of the threat is aware of the threat. Threats may be direct, such as “I am going to beat you up,” or indirect, such as, “I’m going to get him.” Threats may be described according to four risk levels:
a. Low-risk threat: one in which it is determined that the individual or situation does not appear to pose a threat of serious harm to self and/or others, and any exhibited issues or concerns can be resolved easily.
b. Moderate-risk threat: one in which the person or situation does not appear to pose a threat of violence or serious harm to self and/or others, at this time, but the student exhibits behaviors that indicate a continuing intent and potential for future violence or serious harm to self and/or others, and/or the student exhibits other concerning behavior that requires intervention.
c. High-risk threat: one in which the person or situation appears to pose a threat of violence, exhibiting behaviors that indicate both a continuing intent to harm self and/or others and efforts to acquire the capacity to carry out the plan. The student may exhibit other concerning behavior that requires intervention.
d. Imminent threat: exists when the person or situation appears to pose a clear and immediate threat of serious violence toward self and/or others that requires containment and action to protect identified or identifiable target(s). The student may exhibit other concerning behaviors that require intervention.
Six principles form the foundation of the threat assessment process. These principles are:
- The central question in a threat assessment inquiry or investigation is whether a student poses a threat, not whether the student has made a threat.
- Targeted violence is the end result of an understandable, and oftentimes discernible, process of thinking and behavior.
- Targeted violence stems from an interaction among the individual, the situation, the setting, and the target.
- An investigative, skeptical, and inquisitive mindset is critical to successful threat assessment.
- Effective threat assessment is based upon facts rather than on characteristics or “traits.”
- An “integrated systems approach” should guide threat assessment inquiries and investigations.
C. Identifying and Reporting Threats
Timely reporting of expression to harm is crucial to an effective school-based threat assessment program. Anyone, including students, families, and community members, may report communication or behavior that appears to be threatening or potentially threatening to school or District administrators.
All District employees, volunteers, and contractors should report immediately to school administrators any expression of intent to harm another person, concerning communications, or concerning behaviors that suggest an individual may intend to commit an act of violence.
Anyone who believes that a person or situation poses an imminent threat of serious violence that requires containment should notify school security and/or law enforcement.
D. Assessing Threats
A school-based threat assessment is distinct from a law enforcement investigation (if any). The goal of the threat assessment process is to take appropriate preventive or corrective measures to maintain a safe and secure school environment, to protect and support potential victims, and to provide assistance, as needed, to the individual being assessed. School-based threat assessment is also distinct from student discipline procedures. However, the functions of school-based threat assessment may run parallel to student discipline procedures.
The superintendent or designee will designate a team leader for each threat assessment team, such as a school principal or District administrator. If it is not feasible for all team members to be involved with the screening of initial reports referred to the team, the threat assessment team leader may designate a subset of team members to triage cases and determine their appropriateness for review and/or action by the full team. If a team implements a triage process, at least two members of the team will review initial reports and determine if the full team should further assess and manage the situation. All triaged cases must be shared with all members of the assessment team to ensure that the cases were adequately addressed. All threat assessment team members will be trained to triage cases effectively.
2. Imminent Threats
Upon notification of threatening behavior or communications, the school administrator, threat assessment team, or triage team will first determine if an imminent threat is believed to exist. If the individual appears to pose an imminent threat of serious violence to themselves or to others in the school, the administrator or assessment team will notify law enforcement.
3. Moderate- or High-Risk Threats
If the threat assessment team cannot determine with a reasonable degree of confidence that the alleged threat is a not a threat, or is a low-risk threat, then the threat assessment team will undertake a more in-depth assessment to determine the nature and degree of any safety concerns and develop strategies to prevent violence and reduce risk, as necessary.
The threat assessment team’s review may include, but is not limited to, reviews of records; interviews and consultations with staff, students, family members, community members, and others who know the individual; and interviews of the individual and the target/recipient of the threat(s). The threat assessment team will also screen for risk of self-harm and suicidal ideation, regardless of whether the alleged threat also included possible self-harm.
Upon a determination that a student poses a threat of violence or physical harm to self or others, a threat assessment team will immediately report its determination to the superintendent or designee. The superintendent or designee will immediately attempt to notify the student’s parent or legal guardian. The District will ensure that the notice is in a language the parent and/or guardian understands, which may require language assistance for parents or guardians with limited-English proficiency under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
In instances where the threat is deemed moderate- or high-risk, or requires further intervention to prevent violence or serious harm, the school administrator will notify the parent and/or guardian of any student who is the target/recipient of a threat as well as the parent and/or guardian of any student who made the threat in accordance with Policy 3143 and Procedure 3143P. The District will ensure that the notice is in a language the parent and/or guardian understands, which may require language assistance for parents or guardians with limited-English proficiency under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
If the threat assessment team determines that an individual poses a threat of violence, based on the information collected, the threat assessment team will develop, implement, and monitor intervention strategies to address, reduce, and mitigate the threat and provide assistance to those involved, as needed. If these strategies include disciplinary consequences, the District will provide notice to the student and his or her parents or legal guardian consistent with Policy 3241 and Procedure 3241P.
The threat assessment team may assist individual(s) within the school to access appropriate school and community-based resources for support and/or further intervention. This includes assisting those who engaged in threatening behavior or communication and any impacted staff or students.
In cases where the student whose behavior is threatening or potentially threatening also has a disability, the threat assessment team must align intervention strategies with the student’s individualized education program (IEP) or the student’s plan developed under Section 504 of the rehabilitation act of 1973 (Section 504 plan) by coordinating with the student’s IEP team or Section 504 plan team.
4. No Identifiable Threat or Low-Risk Threat
If the threat assessment team concludes there is no identifiable threat or the reported threat constitutes a low-risk threat of violence or harm to self or others, the threat assessment team need not intervene or take further steps.
E. Data Collection, Review, and Reporting
The superintendent will establish procedures for collecting and submitting data related to the school-based threat assessment program that comply with OSPI’s monitoring requirements, processes, and guidelines.
Initially Adopted: November 28, 2022